cooking with chefs

cooking with chefs

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Monday, March 19, 2012

cooking terms

Aerate
To incorporate air to make ingredients lighter. Sifting flour is an example of the process. Whipped butter is another. Air is whipped in, thus making the butter lighter and increase in volume.
Aging
Keeping meats and a or cheese in a controlled environment for a specific amount of time in a controlled and ventilated atmosphere to permit natural flavoring and tenderizing.
Al dente
"To the tooth," in Italian. Pasta is cooked just to a firm and chewy texture.
Allemande
In French Cooking it means in the German style. Sauce Allemande is made from veal stock, cream, egg yolks and lemon juice.
Aromatics
Seasonings to enhance the flavor and aroma usually herbs and spices and some vegetables.
Aspic
A transparent meat flavored jelly/jello that is firm when cold. Used to flavor and add moisture to pate, charcutriere and cold food preparations.
Au Jus
This is the natural pan drippings or juice that comes from a roasting pan after deglazing.
Bacteria
Microscopic organisms, some of which can cause sickness including food-borne infections. Others can be perfectly safe and help tenderize or even add flavor. The blue veining in cheese is an example of the "good" type.
Bake
To cook in the oven as baking a cake, but also may be used in meat cookery such as baked leg of lamb.
Baste
To brush or spoon liquid fat or juices over meat, fish poultry or vegetables during cooking to help keep moisture on the surface area.
Batter
A mixture of flour and liquid that is beaten or stirred in preparation of baking, i.e. cake batter.
Beat
Briskly whipping or stirring it with a spoon, fork, wire whisk, beater or mixer.
Beurre Noir
Heating salted butter until dark brown and foamy but not smoking. A type of butter sauce called black butter sauce.
Bias-slice
Slicing a food crosswise at a 45-degree angle.
Bind
To thickening a sauce or hot liquid by stirring in ingredients such as roux, flour, butter, cornstarch, egg yolks, vegetable puree or cream.
Bisque
A rich thick shellfish soup with cream.
Blackened
Cajun-style cooking method in which highly seasoned foods are dipped in liquid butter then cooked over high heat in a super-heated heavy skillet until charred.
Blanch
To partially cook vegetables by parboiling them in highly salted water then cooling quickly in ice water.
Blend
Mixing two or more ingredients together to obtain an equally distributed mixture.
Boil
To heat water or other liquids to 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 100 degrees Celsius and to keep it bubbling and shimmering in the pot.
Bouillabaisse A Mediterranean fish soup made from several varieties of fish, tomatoes, saffron, fennel and wine.
Bouillon
Clear soup made from slow simmering lean meat, bones and seasonings and vegetables. Strained and served with the shredded cooked meat it was made from.
Bouquet Garni
A bundle of seasonings; bay leaf, thyme and parsley stems tied with leeks, carrot and celery stalk. It's used to season braised foods and stocks.
Braise
Meat browned in fat with vegetables, seasonings and then cooked slowly in liquid so it is partially submerged then cooked in an oven, this combines moist and dry heat cooking. Making a pot roast is an example.
Bread
To coat the food with bread crumbs. Standard method is to first dip in salted flour, then beaten egg and then bread crumbs. Items prepared like this are usually pan fried in oil or clarified butter until golden and crispy.
Broil
To cook food directly under a very hot 500 degree F. heat source.
Broth or stock
A liquid made by gently simmering meats, fish, or vegetables and/or their by-products, such as bones and trimming with herbs, in liquid, usually water. Broths usually have a higher proportion of meat to bones than stock.
Brown
A quick sautéing/searing done either at the beginning or end of meal preparation, often to enhance flavor, texture, or eye appeal.
Brush
To coat food with melted butter, glaze, or other liquid using a pastry brush.
Bundt pan
The name for a tube baking pan having fluted sides.
Buttercream
A frosting made from sugar, sweet butter, milk, egg yolks and flavoring. Confectioner's or powderd sugar is often used buy not required.
Butterfly To cut food down the center without cutting all the way through to open and then spread it apart. shrimp cut this way is popular. Meat may be butterflied when cooking it well done so it isn't burned during the process as if it remained thick.
Cake pan
Round baking pan with straight sides. It comes in 8", 9" and other sizes.
Calamari
Plural for squid in Italian.
Caramel
Brunt sugar used for sauces, coloring, flavoring and candy.
Caramelization
Natural sugars turn brown when exposed to direct heat over a flame, with or without the addition of some oil to aid the process. Onions when fried in butter over high heat causes them to turn brown and have a sweet toasted flavor. Carrots in a roasting pan turn golden with a roast chicken. This process and color change from raw to cooked is carmelization
Caramelize
The process of cooking sugar until it begins to color. Also, while slowly cooking some vegetables e.g. onions, root vegetables, the natural sugars are released and the vegetables will caramelize in their own sugars, usually oil is used in the pan to help the process.
Chicory
A lettuce used for salad and sometimes called curly endive. Also added to coffee in the deep South.
Chiffon
Usually a pureed filling made light and fluffy with beaten egg whites, gelatin and or whipped cream. Lemon chiffon pie is one example.
Chiffonade
Lettuces, sorrel, basil leaves and other leafy vegetables cut into julienne strips.
Chinoise
A very fine conical wire mesh strainer. Using a chinoise removes the small impurities from the liquid that is strained. It is a must in any professional kitchen.
Chop
To cut into irregular pieces with no set size as a result. Chopping parsley is a good example
Cilantro
Parsley like herb with a basil, mint and green onion flavor, popular in Chinese and Mexican/Latin cuisine
Clarify
A process of making a liquid clear by adding beaten egg whites, ground meat and tomato, then simmering slowly. The liquid is then strained and the result is consommé. Also---melting butter over medium heat so the milk solids settle to the bottom and impurities float to the top. The foamy top is discarded and pure golden liquid butter is ladled off into a clean container for other cooking uses.
Coat
Evenly covering food with flour, crumbs, herbs, oil or batter.
Coddle
To cook slowly and gently in a liquid just below the boiling point. Usually eggs are coddled when making traditional Caesar salad to help them absorb and emulsify evenly with the lemon juice and olive oil. Coddled eggs for breakfast a different than poached as they relatively soft but fully heated through.
Combine
The mixing of two or more ingredients into a single mixture.
Confit
Slowly cook pieces of meat in their own gently rendered fat until very soft and tender. With seasonings, brandy/wine and sometimes vegetables. Duck and pork are two popular meats to be used in confit. When cooked and cooled the meat is keep submerged in its cooking fat as a preservative and as a seal against oxygen.
Concasse
Applying to raw or cooked tomatoes: Peeled, seeded and diced/chopped fine, raw; or then sautéed with minced onions in olive oil, cooked.
Core
To remove the inedible center of fruits such apples and pears.
Cream
To beat vegetable shortening, butter, or margarine, with or without sugar, until light and fluffy.
Crimp
To create a decorative edge on a piecrust, also seal the edges together.
Crisp
To restore the crunch to vegetables such as celery and lettuce. This can be done with an ice water bath. Stale crackers can be crisped in a medium oven. Also a type of a pan baked dessert made of cooked fruit with a crunchy flour and sugar topping. Apple or peach crisp are examples.
Croquettes
Chopped seasoned food held together by cream sauce, eggs, flour/breadcrumbs, shaped and then breaded with bread crumbs and deep fried. Crab cakes that are deep fried, not sautéed are really crab croquettes.
Crush
To reduce a food to small particles, usually using a mortar and pestle, rolling pin or bottom of a pot. To crush crackers you may place them in a double bag and roll a rolling pin over
Crystallize
To form sugar or honey syrups into crystals buy cooking it to hard crack and letting it cool on an oiled surface. The term also describes a sugar coating surrounding a fruit dipped in a egg white and granulated sugar mixture.
Cube
To cut in even pieces. May be 1/4 inch/ 1/2 inch or 1 inch. Sides must be of even size to be conceded cubed. This is a description used in dicing as an exact dice.
Cube
To cut in even pieces. May be 1/4 inch/ 1/2 inch or 1 inch. Sides must be of even size to be conceded cubed. This is a description used in dicing as an exact dice.
Curd
Custard-like pie or tart filling made with whole eggs, sugar,juice and zest of citrus the fruit, usually lemon. May also be the solidified nuggets of milk after citric acid has been added and rennet introduced. The curding process is an important stage in the cheese making process.
Curdle
Separation of a milk/cream based sauce or the cooking of eggs when over cooked. Sauces look like egg drop soup when curdled.
Cure
Marinating to preserve an ingredient with salt and/or sugar and spices. Preparing gravlax, marinated salmon, is an example of curing.
Custard
A mixture of beaten egg, egg yolks, milk, and other ingredients. Which is cooked with gentle heat, often in a water bath. A custard differs from a pudding in that it isn't stirred during the cooking process.
Cut in
Working butter or vegetable shortening, margarine, into dry ingredients for equal distribution. This is done with the help of a pastry blender and is an important procedure in making flaky pie crusts.
Dash
A measure approximately equal to 1/16 teaspoon, a pinch or less.
Deep-fry
To partially or completely submerge and cook food in hot oil until golden brown.
Deglaze
Adding liquid to a pan in which foods have been sautéed, fried or roasted to dissolve the caramelized juices stuck to the bottom of the pan.
Devil
To add hot or spicy ingredients such as cayenne pepper, mustard or Tabasco sauce to a food. Sauce Diable is a classic French sauce made with demi-glace and Dijon mustard.
Dice To cut food into cubes. The cubes can be small, medium or large. Dicing is slightly less exact as cubing is but still should have uniformity.
Direct heat
A grilling method that allows food to be cooked directly over the high heat of a flame source.
Dot
To place small bits of an ingredient such as butter on foods at random intervals for the purpose of adding flavor and to aid in browning during cooking.
Double a recipe
To increase recipe amounts by two.
Dough
A combination of ingredients usually including flour, water or milk, and, sometimes, a leavener, producing a pliable mixture for making baked goods.
Dredge
Completely coating in flour and shaking off the excess.
Drippings
Drippings are the liquids and bits of food left in the bottom of a roasting or frying pan after meat is cooked.
Drizzle
Pouring a liquid such as as melted butter, olive oil or other liquid in a slow trickle over food.
Dust
Sprinkling flour on a work surface to evenly coat it, or as with spices, sugar, or bread crumbs, light coating a food item.

The pasta and noodle !

Pasta, the Italian word for dough, was probably introduced to Italy by Germanic tribes, who invaded throughout the 5th century. The German word for pasta -- nudel -- gave us the English word noodle ! ...

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

INDIA

INDIA
INTRODUCTION AREA: 1470 Sq.Km. ALTITUDE: 239Mts TEMPERATURE: Max- 41.2C and Min-21.4 C in Summer, Max-33.7C and Min-6.00C in Winter. RAINFALL: 50.0 CMS ( June to Sept ) BEST SEASON: September to March CLOTHING: Summer-cottons, Winter- Woolen, STD CODE: 011 AREA: 1470 Sq.Km. ALTITUDE: 239Mts TEMPERATURE: Max- 41.2C and Min-21.4 C in Summer, Max-33.7C and Min-6.00C in Winter. RAINFALL: 50.0 CMS ( June to Sept ) BEST SEASON: September to March CLOTHING: Summer-cottons, Winter- Woolen, The capital of the world's largest democracy has a truly fascinating history, but with a population of 14 million sprawling over some 1,500 sq. km (585 sq. miles), and plagued by the subcontinent's highest levels of pollution, growth, and poverty, Delhi's delights are not immediately apparent. Even Delhiites, the majority of whom have been born elsewhere, seldom show pride in the city they now call home, bemoaning its drab mixture of civil servants, aspiring politicians, and avaricious businesspeople; the ever-expanding slums and "unauthorized" colonies; the relatively high levels of crime; and the general demise of traditional ways. Yet Delhi is in many ways the essence of modern India, with its startling paradox of old and new, foreign and familiar. And it remains the best starting point for exploring North India, not only because of its excellent transport connections and relatively sophisticated infrastructure, but because the history of Delhi, one of the oldest cities in the world, is essentially the history of India. The city is littered with crumbling tombs and ruins, most of which are not even on the tourist map. They -- like the elephant trundling alongside a traffic-logged road, where handwritten posters for CUSTOM CONFISCATED GOODS SOLD HERE vie with glossy fashion billboards -- are just part of the strange fabric of Delhi. It doesn't have the vibrancy of Mumbai or the atmosphere of Kolkata, but in one day you can go from marveling at the sheer grace of the soaring Qutb Minar Tower, built in 1199 by the Turkish Slave King Qutb-ud-din Aibak to celebrate his victory over the Hindu Rajputs, to gawking at that 1920s British imperialist masterpiece, palatial Rashtrapati Bhavan. You can wander through the sculptural Jantar Mantar, a huge, open-air astronomy observatory built in 1725 by Jai Singh, creator and ruler of Jaipur, to the still-sacred atmosphere surrounding the tomb of the 14th-century Sufi saint, Sheikh Nizamuddin Aulia, or the 16th-century garden tomb of Mughal Emperor Humayun, precursor to the Taj. Or, after the chaos of exploring the crowded streets of 17th-century Shahjahanabad, Delhi's oldest living city, you can escape to Rajghat, the park where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated in 1948; or to Lodi Gardens, where lawns and golfing greens are studded with the crumbling 15th-century tombs of once-powerful dynasties. And still you haven't covered the half of it.. .. But despite its host of attractions, unless you're staying in one of its top hotels . SIGHTS OF DELHI . Crafts Museum Bhairon Marg, Pragati Bhavan, New Delhi, India · 91-9911987160 CENTRAL DELHI. More than 20,000 artifacts are displayed at this excellent Arts and Crafts museum. The museum is constructed like a traditional Indian village. Folk art such as woodcarvings, paintings and needlework are displayed in authentically constructed mud huts. Artisans from around the country offer demonstrations of their crafts, including embroidery, weaving, carving and pottery. The museum shop is an excellent spot to find high-quality Indian folk art. Shop for hand-woven shawls and rugs, wooden bowls and other household items, unique vases and pitchers and books about India's fine crafts history. Humayun's Tomb Lodi Rd and Mathura Rd, Nizamuddin, New Delhi, India · 91-9911987160 SOUTH DELHI. This mausoleum is one of the first in India to show Persian architectural influences. The octagonal structure is made of red sandstone inlaid with black and white marble, and its double dome rises an impressive 115 feet. Humayun's widow Haji Begum oversaw construction of the mausoleum in the mid-16th century, and she is buried under its floor alongside her husband. There are two lesser tombs on the grounds as well, both for faithful servants of the emperor. Beautifully landscaped gardens surround the mausoleum and tombs, making this a wonderful spot to visit on a clear day since you can get your dose of history and then stroll in the sunshine. Admission is free on Fridays. Jami Masjid Netaji Subhash Marg, across from Red Fort, New Delhi, India · 91-9911987160 OLD DELHI. This impressive structure is India's – some say Asia's – largest mosque. Constructed by 5000 laborers from 1644 to 1656, its interior courtyard is large enough to accommodate 25,000 devout Muslims. Non-Muslims will want to call ahead before planning a visit, since the open hours vary by day and season. All visitors should dress conservatively (no bare shoulders or knees) and be prepared to remove their shoes. Admission is free but for a slight charge you can climb the minaret for an up-close look at the construction and a panoramic view of Old Delhi. (A man must accompany women entering the minaret.) Lal Qila Chandni Chowk, New Delhi, India · 91-9911987160 OLD DELHI. After just one glimpse of its red sandstone walls, you'll understand how this fort got its name. The complex was built in the mid-17th century and was home to 3000 people at its height. The fort was designed as a miniature city. Inside you find gardens, public meeting halls, palaces and a mosque, as well as living quarters. The fort's original shopping district is now lined with kiosks selling souvenirs. The small museum onsite displays period weapons, games, textiles and household items. After the sun sets there is a sound and light show above the fort. Lodi Gardens Lodi Rd, across from Jor Bagh, New Delhi, This beautiful park is a favorite with Delhi-ites of all ages. Businesspeople stroll here during their lunch hour and moms and their toddlers picnic and play on the lush, green grass, which is shaded by huge trees. Several decorative tombs and an ornamental bridge are interspersed throughout the park. In the evenings, the tombs are lit and it is a particularly lovely sight. National Museum 11 Janpath, at corner of Rajpath, New Delhi, India · 91-9911987160 CENTRAL DELHI. This massive museum was built in 1960. More than 30 galleries are scattered over the three floors. The museum undertakes a daunting task – to chronicle the last 5000 years of India's history and culture. Some of the most striking displays are the sculptures from the Indus Valley civilization, circa 2700 BC, the collection of miniature paintings and the bronze statue of Lord Shiva doing his cosmic dance. There is a museum shop that sells souvenirs. The English-language tour, offered each day at 10am, is recommended due to the mammoth scope of the museum's collection. Nehru Memorial Museum Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi, India · CENTRAL DELHI. The father of Indian Independence and the country's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, made this yellow colonial mansion his home until his death in 1964. Most of the rooms are untouched since Nehru's death. It is fascinating to examine the rare photos and news clippings that chronicle the birth of the world's largest democracy. Nehru was an astronomy buff and there is a planetarium on the property. English-language shows are screened at 11:30am and 3pm. Nizamuddin off Mathura Rd, New Delhi, India SOUTH DELHI. This little neighborhood, Nizamuddin, is home to one of the most important shrines in the city. Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia was a Sufi mystic that lived from 1238 until 1325. To see his tomb you must traverse the winding streets of Nizamuddin, past open-air restaurants and beggars asking for alms. This shrine is an important pilgrimage site for many Indian Muslims, and you will see many supplicants making their way to pay their respects. On Thursdays, Sufi musicians play traditional odes to the holyman. Nizamuddin is also home to several lesser tombs and several small mosques. Qutb Minar Complex Aurobindo Marg, near Mehrauli, New Delhi, India -91-9911987160 SOUTH DELHI. The Qutb Minar complex is home to the oldest monuments in Muslim India. There are the ruins of India's first mosque as well as the first Muslim mausoleum. Several massive stone gateways and tombs are also found on the grounds. And most impressive of all is the tall, red, sandstone tower of Qutb Minar. In its grandeur, many consider it second only to the Taj Mahal. Raj Ghat & National Gandhi Museum Ring Rd, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, New Delhi, India · 91-9911987160 OLD DELHI . Mohandas K. Gandhi, Indira Gandhi and her son Rajiv are three of India's most well known and important modern political figures, and each was brutally assassinated. Raj Ghat is the cremation site of all three, and several shrines are erected to honor these heads of state. The National Gandhi Museum chronicles the life of Mahatma Ghandi through displays of photographs, the actual dhoti that Ghandi was wearing when he was killed and information about his handmade cotton movement. An art gallery has sculptures and paintings of this important leader. PEACEFUL AND BUDGET HOTELS Delhi attracts million of people in a month some for Tours, some for there Personal work and some for bussiness.everbody think that Delhi is and expensive city .and its true that delhi is expensive but only for those who don't know more about delhi .and when they reach delhi they paid for 1 room more then 200 $ and more .but now you don't have to pay this huge amount .because now we are here for you.and we provide budget ,safe and familiar accommodation for you .which is under your budget .we have a large network of budget and luxury hotel's in delhi and all northen INDIA. Welcome to the Hotel Peace Point- We are the Leading Hotilers in the Paharganj Region of Delhi State .with very heritage properties. we provide budget rates. Hotel Peace Point- Located near by New Delhi Railway station in the heart of the commercial and shopping junction of Delhi is Hotel Peace Point. The hotel is just 24 Kms from the Domestic Airport and 16 kms from The IGI Airport . Some Imortant distance from 'Hotel Peace Point'. -2 minutes walk from new delhi railway station -5 kilometer from nizamuddin railway station -2 kilometer from old delhi railway station -14 kilometer from domestic airport -16 kilometer from international airport FACILITIES Recreation and Leisure: Airconditioned & aircooled rooms Attached bath with running hot & cold water All rooms equipped with latest technology TV's 5-7 mins walk to Connaught Place Amenities: Elegantly Furnished rooms Multi channel colour TV 24 Hrs. room service Laundry & dry cleaning Tour Travel 24 hrs. Taxi service 24 hrs. Doctor on call Multilingual staff Airport and Railway Station pickup on request Telephone with STD/ISD Ample car parking Business Center with Internet access, copying and faxing services Chemist/Pharmacy (Bell desk arranges medicines from 24-hour Pharmacy in the vicinity) call back facility Dining: Hote Provide Room service Facility for Dining .with all indian and diferent type of food. Hotel tariff SINGLE ROOM - 695/-WITH AIR COOLER WITH A/C.995/- DOUBLEROOM - 895/-WITH AIR COOLER WITH A/C.1195/- THREEBED ROOM -1095-WITH AIR COOLER WITH A/C.1395/- FOUR BED ROOM - 1295-WITH AIR COOLER WITH A/C.1595/- EXTRA PERSON - 400 Peaceman Travel Provide all Northen India Tours .with budget packages for our clients.which include- 1-Char Dham Yatra 2-trekking In Himalya 3-Adventure Tours 4-Wildlife Tours 5-Honeymoon Tours 6-Religious Tours 7-Shimla-kullu Manali Tour 8-Jamuu & Kashmir Tours 9-Rajsathan Tours 10-Vashno devi Tour Etc. For more Email us- peacemantravel@hotmail.com And also Provide Budget Hotel In all Northen India # Parmarth Niketan, Rishikesh * Nestling in the Himalayas on the banks of the Ganges is Parmarth Niketan. The institute has long catered to Indian travelers to the holy city of Rishikesh, which has more yoga camps than eateries. The influx of foreigners heading to Rishikesh on a spiritual path encouraged Swami Chidanand Saraswati, the president of Parmarth Niketan, to offer yoga courses in English. Parmarth offers all the yoga ingredients "in a spiritual ambience," according to Sadhvi Bhagwati, an American scientist who visited India 11 years ago and stayed at Parmarth "after an amazing spiritual experience." The ashram has 1,000 rooms on its eight-acre campus. Room rates depend on the view—facing the Ganges will cost more—but generally run from $70.50 for single occupancy and $200 for double occupancy. Meals are vegetarian. The big event at Parmarth is the weeklong International Yoga Festival every March. It typically gathers 550 participants from 32 countries with the objective of bringing together different streams of yoga and healing arts including Reiki, Shinto yoga, and power yoga.